The Heart-Healthy Trio: How Vitamin D3, K2, and Calcium Work Together to Fight Atherosclerosis

Worried about your heart health? Do you ever feel a pang of fear when you hear about clogged arteries or the dangers of atherosclerosis? You’re not alone. Millions of people share this concern, and rightfully so. Our hearts are the tireless engines that keep us going, and protecting them is paramount.

But there’s good news! Beyond traditional recommendations, a powerful trio of nutrients is emerging as a champion for a healthy cardiovascular system: vitamins D3, K2, and calcium. Imagine them working together like a well-oiled machine, each playing a crucial role in keeping your heart happy and strong.

These nutrients work in a fascinating synergy to promote heart health. Vitamin D3 sets the stage by improving blood flow, vitamin K2 conducts the orchestra by ensuring calcium goes to bones, and calcium strengthens bones without accumulating in arteries.

Let’s delve deeper into this interplay and explore how to optimize your intake for optimal well-being.

This post explores:

  • The individual roles of vitamin D3, K2, and calcium in heart health
  • How these nutrients work together to prevent atherosclerosis.
  • Dietary strategies to increase your intake of each nutrient.
  • A delicious roasted salmon recipe featuring all three powerhouse nutrients.
  • Additional considerations for optimizing your heart health.

Building Strong Bones & a Healthy Heart: A Synergistic Trio

The Individual Players on the Cardiovascular Stage:

Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol):

Often called the “sunshine vitamin,” vitamin D3 is synthesized in the skin upon UVB exposure. Limited sun exposure, geographic location, and skin pigmentation can hinder production. Beyond bone health, vitamin D plays a vital role in regulating blood pressure, reducing inflammation, and supporting a healthy immune system. A 2023 study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism suggests sufficient vitamin D levels may be linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease.

Optimal Daily Levels: The optimal daily intake can vary depending on individual factors, but a good general guideline is 4,000-5,000 IU per day. Consult your doctor for a personalized recommendation based on blood levels.

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone):

There are several forms of vitamin K, but vitamin K2 (specifically MK-7) is crucial for overall health. Unlike vitamin D3, our bodies don’t produce significant amounts. It’s primarily obtained through fermented foods, regenerative protein or supplementation. Vitamin K2 activates proteins essential for proper calcium utilization. One key protein, matrix Gla protein (MGP), inhibits calcium build-up in arteries. Inadequate K2 levels may contribute to arterial calcification, a major risk factor for heart disease. A 2022 research review published in Nutrients highlights the potential of vitamin K2 supplementation to improve arterial stiffness and reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.

The MK-4 vs MK-7 Distinction:

It’s important to note there are different subtypes of vitamin K2. While both MK-4 (menaquinone-4) and MK-7 (menaquinone-7) activate MGP, MK-7 offers several advantages:

Superior Bioavailability: MK-7 has a longer side chain compared to MK-4, allowing for better absorption and retention in the body. This translates to longer-lasting effects on MGP activity.

Dietary Sources: MK-4 is primarily found in animal products and some cheeses, while MK-7 is more abundant in fermented foods like natto and certain cheeses.

Optimal Daily Levels: The optimal daily intake of vitamin K2 is around 100-200 mcg for adults.


This mineral is the building block of bones and teeth. While readily available in the diet, adequate vitamin D is necessary for its proper absorption from the gut. Without sufficient vitamin D, calcium can accumulate in soft tissues like arteries, potentially leading to calcification and cardiovascular issues. Calcium also plays a role in muscle function, nerve transmission, and hormone regulation.

Optimal Daily Levels: The recommended daily intake (RDI) of calcium varies by age, but for adults between 19-50 years old, it’s 1,000 mg per day.

This intricate interplay ensures calcium is used effectively, promoting strong bones and a healthy heart by potentially preventing the buildup of plaque that leads to atherosclerosis.

The K1 and K2 Distinction:

It’s important to differentiate between vitamin K1 and K2. Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) is found abundantly in dark green leafy vegetables and plays a vital role in blood clotting. While it contributes to overall vitamin K status, K2 (menaquinone) is the superstar for bone and cardiovascular health. Our bodies convert some K1 to K2, but the efficiency of this conversion is limited. Therefore, obtaining K2 directly through fermented foods or supplementation becomes crucial. Interestingly, the bacteria in our gut microbiome can also contribute to K2 production, highlighting the importance of a diverse and healthy gut environment.

Beyond Bones and Heart: Additional Benefits:

The benefits of this trio extend even further.

Vitamin D3:

  • May help modulate the immune system, potentially reducing the risk of autoimmune diseases and infections.
  • Studies suggest it might also play a role in mood regulation and reducing the risk of depression.

Vitamin K2:

  • Besides promoting heart health, it might also contribute to better cognitive function and improved blood sugar control.
  • Studies have shown that vitamin K2 helps activate proteins that are essential for incorporating calcium into the bones, potentially leading to stronger bones and a lower risk of fractures.
  • Some research indicates that adequate vitamin K2 levels might be associated with a lower risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as liver cancer.


  • Plays a vital role in muscle function, ensuring proper muscle contractions and relaxation.
  • Supports nerve transmission, allowing for efficient communication between nerves and muscles.
  • Aids in hormone regulation, participating in various hormonal processes within the body.

The Calcium Paradox and a Functional Approach:

Dr. Kate Rhéaume, N.D., aptly points out in her book “Vitamin K2 and the Calcium Paradox” that focusing solely on calcium supplementation can be misleading. Without adequate vitamin D3 and K2, this calcium can end up in unwanted places like arteries.

A functional approach emphasizes a whole-foods diet rich in these three nutrients, ensuring they work together in harmony. This approach goes beyond simply meeting the recommended daily intake (RDI) and focuses on achieving optimal levels for promoting overall health and preventing chronic diseases.

Dietary Strategies for the Powerhouse Trio:

Here are some tips to optimize your intake of vitamin D3, K2, and calcium through a whole-foods approach, along with estimates of nutrient content per serving:

Prioritize sun exposure:

Spend 15-20 minutes first thing in the morning in the sun with exposed skin (avoiding sunburn) to support vitamin D3 production. However, consult your doctor if you have any concerns about sun exposure.

Foods Richest In Vitamin D3:

Fatty fish (salmon): 3.5 oz (100g) – 525 IU
Sardines: 3.5 oz (100g) – 215 IU
Mackerel: 3.5 oz (100g) – 349 IU
Egg yolks: 1 large yolk – 37 IU
Cod liver oil (refer to product label for specific concentration)

Foods Richest in Vitamin K2:

Natto (fermented soybeans): 1/2 cup (64g) – 1,000 mcg (estimates vary depending on the brand, but opt for organic)
Grass-fed butter: 1 tbsp (14g) – small amounts (research suggests fermentation in the gut may increase K2 content)
Cheese (especially Dutch gouda and French brie): 1 oz (28g) – (around 20-50 mcg per ounce)
Fermented vegetables (sauerkraut, kimchi): 1 cup (150g) – 50-200 mcg (depending on the type and fermentation process)

Foods Richest in Calcium:

Dairy products: 1 cup (whole milk) – 300mg
Yogurt: 1 cup (plain yogurt) – 415mg
Cheese: 1 oz (cheddar cheese) – 300mg
Kale: 1 cup (cooked) – 180mg
Sardines (with bones): 3.5 oz (100g) – 351mg

Remember: These are estimates, and the actual nutrient content can vary depending on factors like growing conditions, preparation methods, and brands.

A Delicious Recipe Featuring the Powerhouse Trio:

Now that we understand the vital roles vitamin D3, K2, and calcium play in a healthy heart, let’s put this knowledge into action! This delicious recipe incorporates all three of these powerhouse nutrients in a single dish, making it a tasty way to support your cardiovascular health.

We’ll be featuring Salmon with Sauteed Kale and Kimchi Butter, a dish packed with flavor and essential nutrients. So, grab your favorite cooking tools and get ready to create a meal that’s not only delicious but also good for your heart!


  • 1 wild caught salmon fillet (about 6 oz)
  • 1 tbsp extra virgin olive oil
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 cups organic kale, roughly chopped
  • 1/2 cup kimchi, chopped
  • 2 tbsp grass-fed butter (local and regenerative if possible)
  • 1 tbsp chopped fresh chives


1). Preheat oven to 400°F. Season the salmon fillet with salt and pepper.

2). Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the kale and cook until slightly wilted, about 2-3 minutes. Remove from the pan and set aside.

3). In the same skillet, add the kimchi and cook for 1 minute, scraping up any browned bits from the bottom.

4). Add the butter to the pan and cook until melted and slightly golden brown.

5). Place the salmon fillet skin-side down in the skillet with the kimchi butter. Bake for 10-15 minutes, or until still translucent through (depending on the thickness of the fillet).

6). While the salmon cooks, return the kale to the pan and toss with the remaining kimchi butter.

7). Plate the salmon with the kale mixture on the side.

8). Garnish with chopped chives.

Nutritional Powerhouse:

This recipe provides a good source of all three vital nutrients:

Vitamin D3: From the fatty salmon (approximately 900 IU per 6 oz serving)

Vitamin K2: From the fermented kimchi (amount can vary depending on the brand) and potentially a higher amount from the pasture-raised salmon (depending on the quality of its diet).

Calcium: From the kale and salmon (approximately 280 mg combined).

Additional Considerations for Optimizing Your Heart Health:

Supplementation: While prioritizing a well-rounded diet is crucial, some individuals may benefit from supplementation, especially for vitamin D3 and K2. Consult your doctor to determine if supplementation is right for you and to establish appropriate dosages.

Gut Health: As mentioned earlier, a healthy gut microbiome plays a role in K2 production. Consider incorporating prebiotic and probiotic foods (yogurt, kimchi, kombucha) to support a thriving gut environment.

Sustainability: When choosing animal products for K2, consider opting for brands committed to sustainable and ethical raising practices.

By implementing these strategies, you can support your body’s natural ability to utilize vitamin D3, K2, and calcium for optimal health.

Remember, consistency is key!

A Word from Joseph, Your Functional Nutrition Coach:

A healthy lifestyle goes beyond diet. Aim for regular exercise, manage stress effectively, and prioritize quality sleep. Consulting a functional nutrition coach can help you create a personalized plan to optimize your intake of these vital nutrients and support your overall well-being. By focusing on the powerful trio of vitamin D3, K2, and calcium, you can take a proactive approach to building strong bones, protecting your heart, and promoting overall health.


Vitamin D:
Vitamin K2:

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